Why and Why Not Observational Study Is Recommended

by Ethan

Observational studies are a type of study in which researchers observe and analyze data without intervening or manipulating any variables. Observational studies are commonly used in many fields, including medicine, epidemiology, and social sciences. In this article, we will discuss why and why not observational studies are recommended.

Why Observational Studies Are Recommended

Ethical Considerations

Observational studies are recommended when an intervention or manipulation of variables would be unethical or impossible. For example, it would be unethical to randomly assign people to smoke cigarettes to study the effects of smoking on health. Observational studies can help researchers gather data on such variables without exposing individuals to harm.

Real-World Settings

Observational studies are conducted in real-world settings and can provide valuable information on how variables behave in natural environments. For example, a randomized controlled trial may be conducted in a laboratory or a controlled environment, which may not accurately represent the real world.


Observational studies are often less expensive than randomized controlled trials, which require significant resources and time. Observational studies can provide important information at a lower cost and can be conducted with smaller sample sizes.

Large Sample Sizes

Observational studies can collect data from a large sample size, which can provide valuable information on rare events or diseases. Large sample sizes also increase the statistical power of the study, allowing researchers to draw more accurate conclusions.

Why Not Observational Studies Are Recommended

Limited Control

Observational studies have limited control over variables, which can make it difficult to establish cause-and-effect relationships. Other factors that are not measured or considered may influence the outcome of the study.


Observational studies may be prone to bias due to the non-randomized selection of participants or data collection methods. Researchers may unintentionally select individuals or data that support their hypothesis, leading to biased results.

Confounding Factors

Observational studies may be affected by confounding factors, which are variables that are related to both the exposure and outcome but are not measured or controlled for. Confounding factors can lead to false associations between variables.


Observational studies are often retrospective, meaning that data is collected after the outcome has occurred. This can make it difficult to establish the temporal relationship between the exposure and outcome.

Observational studies have both advantages and disadvantages, and their use depends on the research question and the variables being studied. Observational studies can be valuable in situations where intervention or manipulation of variables would be unethical or impossible, or when studying variables in real-world settings. However, observational studies have limited control over variables, are prone to bias, and may be affected by confounding factors. It is important for researchers to carefully consider the advantages and disadvantages of observational studies when designing their research studies.

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